Personalized Health Research Services, LLC


Phone: +1-407-951-1624
Type of Practice: Consultation, Research, & Writing
Education/Professional Associations:

PhD, Biochemistry; American Medical Writers Association


W. Todd Penberthy, PhD, was trained in biochemistry and developmental biology. He directs biomedical research focused on niacin and NAD biology in models of human disease with particular focus on autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases.

Todd was mentored by Dr. Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD, with respect to the current state of our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of action of niacin and related NAD precursor molecules towards appreciating which indications are likely to be most responsive to high-dose niacin therapy and related NAD precursors: niacin/nicotinic acid, niacinamide, nicotinamide riboside, NMN, and tryptophan. His laboratory research was performed using zebrafish models of human disease to compare NAD precursors.

Todd is a continuing medical education (CME) writer and consultant, with experience in integrative psychiatry. He has contributed multiple chapters describing the latest research of the vitamins niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, and biotin in the textbooks “Present Knowledge in Nutrition” and “Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition“. He is also co-author of The Vitamin Cure for Arthritis (2015) with Robert Smith..

Presentation Abstract

NAD History – Niacin Before & Forever After
The B3 vitamins are by definition the essential dietary precursors to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD is central to bioenergetic and metabolic homeostasis. NAD deficiencies are at the heart of chronic disease susceptibility in the human body machine, while B3 vitamers (niacin, nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside, or nicotinamide mononucleotide) can contribute to complementary rescuing of NAD deficiencies to eliminate disease presentations. Niacin however, has distinct advantages compared to the other vitamers including an exceptional ability to correct lipodystrophy, elevating HDL levels more than any known pharmaceutical, and niacin provides a vasodilation (“flush”) working on the same pathway as Tecfidera (multiple sclerosis). The niacin-unique vasodilatory component likely contributes to exceptional delivery of said NAD precursors and anything else co-supplemented to otherwise inaccessible tissues. High-dose niacin or related therapies have been used with demonstrable success in the clinic to treat or prevent lipodystrophy/CVD, schizophrenia, neurodegenerative diseases with bioenergetic components (Alzheimer’s, etc..), alcoholism, tapering off psychiatric medications/detoxification/P450, sarcopenia, and autoimmune diseases. A review of clinical indications demonstrably most responsive to high-dose niacin therapy or related vitamers with consideration of Abram Hoffer’s unprecedented clinical legacy is presented with B3 administration details from reports.


  1. Penberthy, W. T., & Smith, R. (2018). Nutritional Approaches Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis. Orthomolecular Medical News Service.
  2. Penberthy, W. T. & Kirkland, J.B. (2020 & 2012). Niacin. Present Knowledge in Human Nutrition. 10th edition, Diane Birt, J W Erdman, I MacDonald, S H Zeisel, eds. Ames, Iowa: International Life Sciences.
  3. Penberthy, W. T., Sadri, M., & Zempleni, J. (2020 & 2012). Biotin. Present Knowledge in Human Nutrition. 10th edition, Diane Birt, J W Erdman, I MacDonald, S H Zeisel, eds.  Ames, Iowa: International Life Sciences.
  4. Penberthy, W.T. (2020 & 2013). Niacin, Riboflavin, and Thiamine, ed. Stipanuk, M.H., Caudill, M.A., eds., Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition, 3rd ed (pp. p.540-564). Elsevier/Saunders.
  5. Penberthy, W. T. (2017). Niacin Rescues Cannibalistic Hamsters: The Historical Significance of 1940s Mandatory Niacin Enrichment. Orthomolecular Medical News Service.
  6. Hu, L., Ibrahim, K., Stucki, M., Frapolli, M.,  Shahbeck, N., Chaudhry, F.A., Gorg, B.,  Haussinger, D., Penberthy, W.T., Ben-Omran, T., & Haberle, J. (2015). Secondary NAD+ Deficiency in the Inherited Defect of Glutamine Synthase. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 38(6):1075-83.
  7. Penberthy, W. T., & Smith, R. (2015). The Vitamin Cure for Arthritis. A book for laypersons about nutritional approaches to treating arthritis. (p1-237). Basic Health Publications, Incorporated.
  8. Penberthy, W. T., & Saul, A. (2014). Supplements Accelerate Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: A Case Report and Biochemical Rationale.   Orthomolecular Medical News Service. 
  9. Penberthy, W.T. (2013). Ask This Question Before Taking Statins. Orthomolecular Medical News Service.
  10. Penberthy, W. T., & Tsunoda, I. (2009). The Importance of NAD in Multiple Sclerosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 15(1): 64-99.
  11. Penberthy, W. T. (2007). Pharmacologic Targeting of IDO-mediated Tolerance for Treating Autoimmune Disease. Current Drug Metabolism. 8: 245-266. REQUEST PDF AND I WILL SEND.