Personalized Health Research Services, LLC


Phone: +1-689-247-0254
Type of Practice: Consultation, Research, & Writing
Education/Professional Associations:

PhD, Biochemistry; American Medical Writers Association


W. Todd Penberthy, PhD, was trained in biochemistry and developmental biology. He directs biomedical research focused on niacin and NAD biology in models of human disease with particular focus on autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases.

Todd was mentored by Dr. Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD, with respect to the current state of our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of action of niacin and related NAD precursor molecules towards appreciating which indications are likely to be most responsive to high-dose niacin therapy and related NAD precursors: niacin/nicotinic acid, niacinamide, nicotinamide riboside, NMN, and tryptophan. His laboratory research was performed using zebrafish models of human disease to compare NAD precursors.

Todd is a continuing medical education (CME) writer and consultant, with experience in integrative psychiatry. He has contributed multiple chapters describing the latest research of the vitamins niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, and biotin in the textbooks “Present Knowledge in Nutrition” and “Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition“. He is also co-author of The Vitamin Cure for Arthritis (2015) with Robert Smith.

Contributions to Orthomolecular Medicine

Speaker, 50th Annual International Orthomolecular Medicine Today Conference

Orthomolecular Medicine News Service Editorial Review Board


  1. Penberthy, W. T., & Smith, R. (2018). Nutritional Approaches Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis. Orthomolecular Medical News Service.
  2. Penberthy, W. T. & Kirkland, J.B. (2020 & 2012). Niacin. Present Knowledge in Human Nutrition. 10th edition, Diane Birt, J W Erdman, I MacDonald, S H Zeisel, eds. Ames, Iowa: International Life Sciences.
  3. Penberthy, W. T., Sadri, M., & Zempleni, J. (2020 & 2012). Biotin. Present Knowledge in Human Nutrition. 10th edition, Diane Birt, J W Erdman, I MacDonald, S H Zeisel, eds.  Ames, Iowa: International Life Sciences.
  4. Penberthy, W.T. (2020 & 2013). Niacin, Riboflavin, and Thiamine, ed. Stipanuk, M.H., Caudill, M.A., eds., Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition, 3rd ed (pp. p.540-564). Elsevier/Saunders.
  5. Penberthy, W. T. (2017). Niacin Rescues Cannibalistic Hamsters: The Historical Significance of 1940s Mandatory Niacin Enrichment. Orthomolecular Medical News Service.
  6. Hu, L., Ibrahim, K., Stucki, M., Frapolli, M.,  Shahbeck, N., Chaudhry, F.A., Gorg, B.,  Haussinger, D., Penberthy, W.T., Ben-Omran, T., & Haberle, J. (2015). Secondary NAD+ Deficiency in the Inherited Defect of Glutamine Synthase. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 38(6):1075-83.
  7. Penberthy, W. T., & Smith, R. (2015). The Vitamin Cure for Arthritis. A book for laypersons about nutritional approaches to treating arthritis. (p1-237). Basic Health Publications, Incorporated.
  8. Penberthy, W. T., & Saul, A. (2014). Supplements Accelerate Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: A Case Report and Biochemical Rationale.   Orthomolecular Medical News Service. 
  9. Penberthy, W.T. (2013). Ask This Question Before Taking Statins. Orthomolecular Medical News Service.
  10. Penberthy, W. T., & Tsunoda, I. (2009). The Importance of NAD in Multiple Sclerosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 15(1): 64-99.
  11. Penberthy, W. T. (2007). Pharmacologic Targeting of IDO-mediated Tolerance for Treating Autoimmune Disease. Current Drug Metabolism. 8: 245-266. REQUEST PDF AND I WILL SEND.