This webpage includes a selection of research publications pertaining to micronutrients and their biological roles in immune function. Articles are linked to their original source via Digital Object Identifier (DOI); PubMed Identifier (PMID); or Uniform Resource Locator (URL)


Vitamin A

  • Role of fat soluble vitamins A and D in the pathogenesis of influenza: A new perspective. Hindawi International Scholarly Research Notes. 2013 –

Vitamin C

  • Vitamin C supplementation is necessary for patients with coronavirus disease: An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry finding. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021; 196 –
  • Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: A retrospective case series study. Annals of Palliative Medicine. 2020 –

  • Vitamin C: An adjunctive therapy for respiratory infection, sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12) –
  • Patients with community acquired pneumonia exhibit depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5) –
  • Extra dose of vitamin C based on a daily supplementation shortens the common cold: A meta-analysis of 9 randomized controlled trials. Biomed Res Int. 2018 –
  • Intravenous vitamin C as adjunctive therapy for enterovirus/rhinovirus induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. World Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 2017; 6(1) –
  • The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1999; 22(8) –

Vitamin D

  • Effectiveness of in-hospital cholecalciferol use on clinical outcomes in comorbid COVID-19 patients: A hypothesis-generating study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1) –
  • Association between Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 incidence, complications, and mortality in 46 countries: An ecological study. Health Security, 2020 –
  • The importance of Vitamin D metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2020; 18 –
  • Vitamin D supplementation associated to better survival in hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11) –
  • Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized from COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2020; 203:105751 –
  • Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and mortality from respiratory diseases in a cohort of older adults: Potential from limiting the death toll during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic? Nutrients. 2020; 12(8) –
  • Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4) –
  • The role of vitamin D in increasing circulating T regulatory cell numbers and modulating T regulatory cell phenotypes in patients with inflammatory disease or in healthy volunteers: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2019; 14(9) –
  • Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017; 356 –

Vitamin K

Glutathione (GSH)



  • Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of melatonin in moderately ill patients with COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. NTrials. 2020; 21(1) –

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)


  • The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2011; 16(7) –


Micronutrients and Nutrition

  • Effect of high-dose zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation vs usual care on symptom length and reduction among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial.  JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4(2) –
  • Micronutrients, phytochemicals and Mediterranean diet: A potential protective role against COVID-19 through modulation of PAF actions and metabolism. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2) –
  • SARS-CoV-2: Influence of phosphate and magnesium, moderated by Vitamin D, on energy (ATP) metabolism and on severity of COVID-19. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2021; 320(1) –
  • Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Glob Health. 2021; 6(1): 3003176 –
  • Current state of evidence: Influence of nutritional and nutrigenetic factors on immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic framework. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9) –
  • Early nutritional interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for raising anti-viral resistance against progressive COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8) –
  • Impact of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E supplementation on improvement and mortality rate in ICU patients with coronavirus-19: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020; 21(1) –
  • Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 crisis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6) –
  • What is the role of supplementation with ascorbic acid, zinc, vitamin D, or N-acetylcysteine for prevention or treatment of COVID-19? [Epub ahead of print] Cleve Clin J Med. 2020 –
  • Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 crisis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6) –
  • Early nutritional supplementation in non-critically ill patients hospitalized for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Rationale and feasibility of a shared pragmatic protocol. Nutrition. 2020 –
  • Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4) –


This website contains information pertaining to nutritional intervention and the use of non-patentable molecules for improving outcomes in various medical conditions. The information provided may not reflect the current standard(s) of care in your jurisdiction, and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice from a licensed physician or other qualified health care professional.

Please consult your regional public health authority for specific guidelines and resources pertaining to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19