This webpage includes a selection of research publications pertaining to micronutrients and their biological roles in immune function. Articles are linked to their original source via Digital Object Identifier (DOI); PubMed Identifier (PMID); or Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Search articles published in the  Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine

Vitamin A

  • Role of fat soluble vitamins A and D in the pathogenesis of influenza: A new perspective. Hindawi International Scholarly Research Notes. 2013 – https://doi.org/10.5402/2013/246737

Vitamin C

  • Vitamin C supplementation is necessary for patients with coronavirus disease: An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry finding. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021; 196 – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.113927
  • Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: A retrospective case series study. Annals of Palliative Medicine. 2020 – https://doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1387

  • Vitamin C: An adjunctive therapy for respiratory infection, sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123760
  • Patients with community acquired pneumonia exhibit depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051318
  • Extra dose of vitamin C based on a daily supplementation shortens the common cold: A meta-analysis of 9 randomized controlled trials. Biomed Res Int. 2018 – https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1837634
  • Intravenous vitamin C as adjunctive therapy for enterovirus/rhinovirus induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. World Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 2017; 6(1) – https://doi.org/10.5492/wjccm.v6.i1.85
  • The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1999; 22(8) – https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-4754(99)70005-9

Vitamin D

  • Effects of a 2-week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation on recovery of symptoms in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7): 2170. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072170
  • Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomized controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology. 2021, 9(5) – https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00051-6
  • The impact of COVID-19 pandemic during 2020-2021 on the vitamin D serum levels in the pediatric population in Warsaw, Poland. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061990
  • Bad prognosis in critical ill patients with COVID-19 during short-term ICU stay regarding vitamin D levels. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061988
  • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on serum vitamin D level among infants and toddlers: An interrupted time series analysis and before-and-after comparison. Nutrients, 2021; 13(4) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041270
  • Notable developments for vitamin D amid the COVID-19 pandemic, but caution warranted overall: A narrative review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030740
  • Effectiveness of in-hospital cholecalciferol use on clinical outcomes in comorbid COVID-19 patients: A hypothesis-generating study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010219
  • Association between Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 incidence, complications, and mortality in 46 countries: An ecological study. Health Security, 2020 – https://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2020.0137
  • The importance of Vitamin D metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2020; 18 – https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5
  • Vitamin D supplementation associated to better survival in hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113377
  • Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized from COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2020; 203:105751 – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751
  • Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and mortality from respiratory diseases in a cohort of older adults: Potential from limiting the death toll during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic? Nutrients. 2020; 12(8) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082488
  • Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040988
  • The role of vitamin D in increasing circulating T regulatory cell numbers and modulating T regulatory cell phenotypes in patients with inflammatory disease or in healthy volunteers: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2019; 14(9) – https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222313
  • Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017; 356 – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i6583

Vitamin K

  • The association of low vitamin K status with mortality in a cohort of 138 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061985
  • Vitamin K metabolism as the potential missing link between lung damage and thromboembolism in Coronavirus disease 2019. British Journal of Nutrition. 2021; 126 (2) – https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520003979

Glutathione (GSH)

  • Evaluation of oxidative stress level: total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and glutathione activity in patients with COVID-19. New Microbes and New Infections. 2021; 42 – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100897

Magnesium

Melatonin

  • Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of melatonin in moderately ill patients with COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. NTrials. 2020; 21(1) – https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04737-w

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

  • Therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in preventing cytokine storm in COVID-19: Review of current evidence. European Review of Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2021. 25(6) – https://doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202103_25442
  • N-acetyl-cysteine reduces the risk for mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A two-center retrospective cohort study. Infectious Diseases. 2021 – https://doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2021.1945675

Selenium

  • Selenium supplementation can relieve the clinical complications of COVID-19 and other similar viral infections. International Journal of Vitamins & Nutrition Research. 2021; 91(3-4) – https://doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000663
  • The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2011; 16(7) – https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2011.4145

Zinc

Micronutrients and Nutrition

  • Clinical significance of micronutrient supplementation in critically ill COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. Nutrients. 2021, 13(6) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062113
  • Does evidence exist to blunt inflammatory response by nutraceutical supplementation during COVID-19 pandemic?  An overview of systematic reviews of vitamin D, vitamin C, melatonin and zinc. Nutrients. 2021, 13(4) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041261
  • Dietary supplements, vitamins and minerals as potential interventions against viruses: Perspectives for COVID-19. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutritional Research. 2021 – https://doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000694
  • Cohort study to evaluate the effect of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 in combination on progression to severe outcomes in older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19). Nutrition. 2020 – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017
  • Maternal selenium status plays a crucial role on clinical outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. Journal of Medical Virology. 2021 – https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27064
  • Effect of high-dose zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation vs usual care on symptom length and reduction among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial.  JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4(2) – https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369
  • Micronutrients, phytochemicals and Mediterranean diet: A potential protective role against COVID-19 through modulation of PAF actions and metabolism. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020462
  • SARS-CoV-2: Influence of phosphate and magnesium, moderated by Vitamin D, on energy (ATP) metabolism and on severity of COVID-19. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2021; 320(1) – https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00474.2020
  • Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Glob Health. 2021; 6(1): 3003176 – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003176
  • Current state of evidence: Influence of nutritional and nutrigenetic factors on immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic framework. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092738
  • Early nutritional interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for raising anti-viral resistance against progressive COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082358
  • Impact of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E supplementation on improvement and mortality rate in ICU patients with coronavirus-19: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020; 21(1) – https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04547-0
  • Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 crisis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061562
  • What is the role of supplementation with ascorbic acid, zinc, vitamin D, or N-acetylcysteine for prevention or treatment of COVID-19? [Epub ahead of print] Cleve Clin J Med. 2020 – https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc046
  • Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 crisis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061562
  • Early nutritional supplementation in non-critically ill patients hospitalized for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Rationale and feasibility of a shared pragmatic protocol. Nutrition. 2020 – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110835
  • Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4) – https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041181

DISCLAIMER OF INFORMATION & CONTENT

This website contains information pertaining to nutritional intervention and the use of non-patentable molecules for improving outcomes in various medical conditions. The information provided may not reflect the current standard(s) of care in your jurisdiction, and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice from a licensed physician or other qualified health care professional.

Please consult your regional public health authority for specific guidelines and resources pertaining to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19