This webpage includes a selection of research publications pertaining to micronutrients and their biological roles in immune function. Articles are linked to their original source via Digital Object Identifier (DOI); PubMed Identifier (PMID); or Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Vitamin A

  • Role of fat soluble vitamins A and D in the pathogenesis of influenza: A new perspective. Hindawi International Scholarly Research Notes. 2013 –

Vitamin C

  • Vitamin C supplementation is necessary for patients with coronavirus disease: An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry finding. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2021; 196 –
  • Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: A retrospective case series study. Annals of Palliative Medicine. 2020 –

  • Vitamin C: An adjunctive therapy for respiratory infection, sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12) –
  • Patients with community acquired pneumonia exhibit depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5) –
  • Extra dose of vitamin C based on a daily supplementation shortens the common cold: A meta-analysis of 9 randomized controlled trials. Biomed Res Int. 2018 –
  • Intravenous vitamin C as adjunctive therapy for enterovirus/rhinovirus induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. World Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 2017; 6(1) –
  • The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1999; 22(8) –

Vitamin D

  • The role of vitamin D in the age of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2021; 75(11) –
  • Vitamin D and COVID-19: A review on the role of vitamin D in preventing and reducing the severity of COVID-19 infection. Protein Science. 2021; 30(11) –
  • Effects of a 2-week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation on recovery of symptoms in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7): 2170.
  • Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomized controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology. 2021, 9(5) –
  • The impact of COVID-19 pandemic during 2020-2021 on the vitamin D serum levels in the pediatric population in Warsaw, Poland. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6) –
  • Bad prognosis in critical ill patients with COVID-19 during short-term ICU stay regarding vitamin D levels. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6) –
  • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on serum vitamin D level among infants and toddlers: An interrupted time series analysis and before-and-after comparison. Nutrients, 2021; 13(4) –
  • Notable developments for vitamin D amid the COVID-19 pandemic, but caution warranted overall: A narrative review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3) –
  • Effectiveness of in-hospital cholecalciferol use on clinical outcomes in comorbid COVID-19 patients: A hypothesis-generating study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1) –
  • Association between Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 incidence, complications, and mortality in 46 countries: An ecological study. Health Security, 2020 –
  • The importance of Vitamin D metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2020; 18 –
  • Vitamin D insufficiency may account for almost nine of ten COVID-19 Deaths: Time to act. Comment on: “Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 patients”.  Nutrients 2020; 12, 2757. Nutrients, 12(12) –
  • Vitamin D supplementation associated to better survival in hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11) –
  • Serum 25(OH)D level on hospital admission associated with COVID-19 stage and mortality. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2021; 155(3) –
  • Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized from COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2020; 203:105751 –
  • Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: An Israeli population-based study. The FEBS Journal. 2020; 287(17) –
  • Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection. PloS One. 2020; 15(9) –
  • Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and mortality from respiratory diseases in a cohort of older adults: Potential from limiting the death toll during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic? Nutrients. 2020; 12(8) –
  • Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4) –
  • The role of vitamin D in increasing circulating T regulatory cell numbers and modulating T regulatory cell phenotypes in patients with inflammatory disease or in healthy volunteers: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2019; 14(9) –
  • Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017; 356 –

Vitamin K

  • The association of low vitamin K status with mortality in a cohort of 138 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6) –
  • Vitamin K metabolism as the potential missing link between lung damage and thromboembolism in Coronavirus disease 2019. British Journal of Nutrition. 2021; 126 (2) –

Glutathione (GSH)

  • Evaluation of oxidative stress level: total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and glutathione activity in patients with COVID-19. New Microbes and New Infections. 2021; 42 –



  • Efficacy of a Low Dose of Melatonin as an Adjunctive Therapy in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial. Archives of Medical Research. 2022; 53(1) –
  • Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of melatonin in moderately ill patients with COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. NTrials. 2020; 21(1) –

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

  • Therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in preventing cytokine storm in COVID-19: Review of current evidence. European Review of Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2021. 25(6) –
  • N-acetyl-cysteine reduces the risk for mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A two-center retrospective cohort study. Infectious Diseases. 2021 –


  • Selenium supplementation can relieve the clinical complications of COVID-19 and other similar viral infections. International Journal of Vitamins & Nutrition Research. 2021; 91(3-4) –
  • The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2011; 16(7) –


  • Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with high dose oral zinc salts: A report on four patients. International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Disease. 2020; 99 –

Micronutrients and Nutrition

  • Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Journal of Medical Virology. 2022; 94(1) –
  • Clinical significance of micronutrient supplementation in critically ill COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. Nutrients. 2021, 13(6) –
  • Does evidence exist to blunt inflammatory response by nutraceutical supplementation during COVID-19 pandemic?  An overview of systematic reviews of vitamin D, vitamin C, melatonin and zinc. Nutrients. 2021, 13(4) –
  • Dietary supplements, vitamins and minerals as potential interventions against viruses: Perspectives for COVID-19. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutritional Research. 2021 –
  • Cohort study to evaluate the effect of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 in combination on progression to severe outcomes in older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19). Nutrition. 2020 –
  • Maternal selenium status plays a crucial role on clinical outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. Journal of Medical Virology. 2021 –
  • Effect of high-dose zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation vs usual care on symptom length and reduction among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial.  JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4(2) –
  • Magnesium and Vitamin D deficiency as a potential cause immune dysfunction, cytokine storm and disseminated intravascular coagulation in COVID-19 patients. Missouri Medicine. 2021; 118(1)
  • Micronutrients, phytochemicals and Mediterranean diet: A potential protective role against COVID-19 through modulation of PAF actions and metabolism. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2) –
  • SARS-CoV-2: Influence of phosphate and magnesium, moderated by Vitamin D, on energy (ATP) metabolism and on severity of COVID-19. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2021; 320(1) –
  • Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Glob Health. 2021; 6(1): 3003176 –
  • Current state of evidence: Influence of nutritional and nutrigenetic factors on immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic framework. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9) –
  • Early nutritional interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for raising anti-viral resistance against progressive COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8) –
  • Impact of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E supplementation on improvement and mortality rate in ICU patients with coronavirus-19: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020; 21(1) –
  • Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 crisis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6) –
  • What is the role of supplementation with ascorbic acid, zinc, vitamin D, or N-acetylcysteine for prevention or treatment of COVID-19? [Epub ahead of print] Cleve Clin J Med. 2020 –
  • Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 crisis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6) –
  • Early nutritional supplementation in non-critically ill patients hospitalized for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Rationale and feasibility of a shared pragmatic protocol. Nutrition. 2020 –
  • Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4) –


This website contains information pertaining to nutritional intervention and the use of non-patentable molecules for improving outcomes in various medical conditions. The information provided may not reflect the current standard(s) of care in your jurisdiction, and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice from a licensed physician or other qualified health care professional.

Please consult your regional public health authority for specific guidelines and resources pertaining to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19